Spiritual discourses, Thoughts

Mandukya Upanishad and Creation (Part-II)

Continuing from last post, let us recollect that consciousness appears to be in three states namely waking, dream and deep sleep. In these three states, the same jiva appears to be three different entities (for e.g. the jiva of waking state may be a rich person while that of dream state may be a pauper). Accordingly, Mandukya gives them three different names viz. Vishva, Taijas and Prajna.

Vishva is said to be the enjoyer (भोक्ता ) of gross (स्थूल), Taijas of subtle (प्रविविक्त) and Prajna of bliss (आनंद). It has already been discussed in last post as to why Prajna is said to be the enjoyer of bliss even though avidya apparently has nothing to enjoy. Beyond all these three, there is the fourth state of consciousness which is named as Turiya. It is this Turiya which has been indicated in अयम् आत्मा ब्रह्म, तत् त्वम् असि, आत्मा एव इदम् सर्वम् etc. Just as by knowing the mother-of-pearl, the desire of silver disappears, similarly by knowing Turiya, desire and avidya disappears. This Turiya is known as Atma and has four legs (these legs are not like the four legs of animal, but like the four parts of rupee, each of twenty five paise). The Turiya state is real (परमार्थ स्वरूप), non-causal (अबीजात्मक) and is like the rope of imaginary snake. The other three parts are Vishva, Taijas and Prajna which are created by avidya (अविद्या कृत), are causal(बीजात्मक), non-real(अपरमार्थ स्वरूप) and are just like the imaginary snake on rope. Digressing a bit, one is reminded of Ramana Maharishi who said that on I (Turiya), the three states of waking, dream and deep sleep pass just like different movies pass on the screen of a cinema hall. 

When a magician throws a thread in sky and then ascends on it along with arms and ammunition to wage a war in the sky, gets himself cut into pieces and thrown back on earth, only a foolish person gets moved by the apparent manifestation. A wise man understands that it is all illusion and is unconcerned. He knows that real magician is not dead but is on earth, beyond his eye sight. The thread thrown is compared to the states of waking, dream and deep sleep. The magician ascending on that thread is compared to Vishva, Taijas and Prajna. The real magician who is on earth is comparable to Turiya.

Non-apprehension of reality is the cause (कारण) of the effect that is misapprehension (कार्य). Vishva and Taijas are bound to both cause and effect while Prajna is bound only to cause. However, both cause and effect are absent in Turiya.
The difference of Prajna and Turiya can be easily understood by the example of magician-on-earth (Turiya) and magician-on-thread (Vishva/Taijas/Prajna). Non-perception of duality is common to both Prajna and Turiya but Prajna is combined with बीज निद्रा which is non-apprehension of reality, whereas Turiya is not so bound.
Dream is misapprehension of reality like snake on rope. Sleep (निद्रा) is non-apprehension of reality. Vishva and Taijas are constituted of both dream and sleep and are therefore bound to both कारण and कार्य . Prajna doesn’t have dream but only sleep and is therefore bound only to कारण. However, Turiya has neither dream nor sleep. It is the Reality itself and there cannot be non-apprehension (निद्रा) in it and therefore misapprehension is verily absent in It.
Avidya is the reason of darkness in which sleep (non-apprehension) occurs. Being mutually reinforcing, avidya =  निद्रा = non-apprehension of reality.
This manifest duality is imaginary like a snake on the rope. It is never the case that snake is removed by discrimination when light dawns. No. There is no question of removal of snake because the snake has never been there at all. Similarly, dvaita is never there. It is only Maya like the illusion of magician. In reality, it is non-dual.
Just as from non-apprehension, misapprehension takes place, similarly from Prajna, Vishva and Taijas arise and they merge back to Prajna in deep sleep.


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