Shrimad Bhagvad Gita

Shankar Bhashya on Gita- One shloka a day- 4.1

Gita 3.43

श्री भगवानुवाच
इमं विवस्वते योगं प्रोक्तवानहमव्ययम्।
विवस्वान् मनवे प्राह मनुरिक्ष्वाकवेऽब्रवीत्।।4.1।।

Shri Bhagvan said, “I imparted this imperishable Yoga to Vivasvan, Vivasvan taught this to Manu, and Manu transmitted this to Iksavaku”.

Shri Shankaracharya said in the introduction to chapter four that the yoga having the attribute of jnana-nishtha, which is attainable through karma-yoga and sanyas, is the yoga sought to be explained in entire Gita by Bhagvan. This yoga alone was explained by chapter two and three in which the entire meaning of Vedas culminates. Having realised that entire meaning of Vedas has been completed (communicated), Bhagvan speaks this shloka in order to glorify this yoga through tradition.

Bhagvan says that this yoga, stated through chapter two and three, was spoken by Him at the start of creation to Sun. This was taught by Him with a view to infuse vigour (=bala) in Kshatriya, the protectors of jagat, so that they, equipped with the power of this yoga, will be able to protect the Brahmans. If Brahmans and Kshatriya are protected, then the protection of jagat is ensured. Continue reading “Shankar Bhashya on Gita- One shloka a day- 4.1”

Advertisements
Shrimad Bhagvad Gita

Shankar Bhashya on Gita- One shloka a day- Introduction to Chapter 4

The yoga (=jnana-yoga) which was spoken by the previous two chapters viz. chapter two and chapter three and which has the attribute of jnana-nishtha and is attainable through the means of karma-yoga along with sanyasa, in which culminates the entire meaning of Vedas having the attributes of pravritti (action) and nivritti (renunciation), only this yoga is sought to be explained by Bhagvan in entire Gita. Continue reading “Shankar Bhashya on Gita- One shloka a day- Introduction to Chapter 4”

Shrimad Bhagvad Gita

Shankar Bhashya on Gita- One shloka a day- 3.43

Gita 3.43

एवं बुद्धेः परं बुद्ध्वा संस्तभ्यात्मानमात्मना।
जहि शत्रुं महाबाहो कामरूपं दुरासदम्।।3.43।।

After understanding (the atman) thus as superior to buddhi and completely establishing the atman in samadhi by atman (=purified mind), o mighty armed one, you kill this enemy having the form of kama, which is difficult to subdue.  

After knowing atman as superior to buddhi and completely establishing the atman by own atman (=mind) i.e. establishing atman in complete samadhi by purified mind, o mighty armed one, you kill this enemy having the form of kama, which is difficult to subdue i.e. difficult to hold because of it possessing several inscrutable features.

Shrimad Bhagvad Gita

Shankar Bhashya on Gita- One shloka a day- 3.42

Gita 3.42

इन्द्रियाणि पराण्याहुरिन्द्रियेभ्यः परं मनः।
मनसस्तु परा बुद्धिर्यो बुद्धेः परतस्तु सः।।3.42।।

They say that the senses are superior (to the gross body); the mind is superior to the senses; but the buddhi is superior to the mind. However, the one who is superior to the intellect is He.

A question was raised in the previous verse as to the support taking resort whereof one is supposed to renounce kama. This verse seeks to explain that support.

The learned men state the five senses viz the sense of hearing etc (touch, sight, smell, taste) to be superior.

Why are they superior? Continue reading “Shankar Bhashya on Gita- One shloka a day- 3.42”

Shrimad Bhagvad Gita

Shankar Bhashya on Gita- One shloka a day- 3.41

Gita 3.41

तस्मात्त्वमिन्द्रियाण्यादौ नियम्य भरतर्षभ।
पाप्मानं प्रजहि ह्येनं ज्ञानविज्ञाननाशनम्।।3.41।।

Therefore, o scion of the Bharata dynasty, after first controlling the senses etc, renounce this one (=kama) which is sinful and is a destroyer of jnana and vijnana.

Bhagvan stated in previous verse that senses, mind and buddhi are the abode of this kama. This being so, Bhagvan asks Arjuna in this verse to bring these senses etc under control at the outset. And after so controlling the senses etc, you renounce this kama, this enemy under discussion, which is sinful being accustomed to sinning and which is destroyer of jnana and vijnana.

What exactly is this jnana and vijnana? Continue reading “Shankar Bhashya on Gita- One shloka a day- 3.41”

Shrimad Bhagvad Gita

Shankar Bhashya on Gita- One shloka a day- 3.40

Gita 3.40

इन्द्रियाणि मनो बुद्धिरस्याधिष्ठानमुच्यते।
एतैर्विमोहयत्येष ज्ञानमावृत्य देहिनम्।।3.40।।

The senses, mind, and the buddhi are said to be its abode. This one (=kama) diversely deludes the embodied by veiling jnana with the help of these.

This verse was started to explain the abode of kama. Bhagvan says that senses, mind and buddhi are the abode of this kama. By (the help of) these abodes of senses etc, this kama covers the jnana and deludes the embodied shariri in various ways.

This being so (in next shloka):-

Shrimad Bhagvad Gita

Shankar Bhashya on Gita- One shloka a day- 3.39

Gita 3.39

आवृतं ज्ञानमेतेन ज्ञानिनो नित्यवैरिणा।
कामरूपेण कौन्तेय दुष्पूरेणानलेन च।।3.39।।

O son of Kunti, jnana is covered by this constant enemy of the jnanis having the form of kama, which is an insatiable fire.

This verse was started to explain the object indicated by the word ‘this’ in the previous verse.  Bhagvan says that jnana is covered by this (=kama) and it is ‘constant’ enemy of jnanis.

How it is ‘constant’ enemy of jnanis? Continue reading “Shankar Bhashya on Gita- One shloka a day- 3.39”

Shrimad Bhagvad Gita

Shankar Bhashya on Gita- One shloka a day- 3.38

Gita 3.38

धूमेनाव्रियते वह्निर्यथाऽऽदर्शो मलेन च।
यथोल्बेनावृतो गर्भस्तथा तेनेदमावृतम्।।3.38।।

As fire is enveloped by smoke, as a mirror by dirt, and as a foetus remains enclosed in the womb, so in this shrouded by that.

In the previous verse, Bhagvan said that kama and krodha are the causal factors due to which people commit sins despite their unwillingness. Also kama was stated to be a voracious eater and great sinner. In this verse, Bhagvan seeks to reply to the query as to how kama is an enemy through analogies.

Bhagvan says that fire is naturally bright and smoke is naturally dark. Smoke is generated along with fire. The fire gets covered by smoke. Further, mirror gets covered by dirt. Similarly, the foetus is covered in the womb by amnion.  Continue reading “Shankar Bhashya on Gita- One shloka a day- 3.38”

Shrimad Bhagvad Gita

Shankar Bhashya on Gita- One shloka a day- 3.37

Gita 3.37

श्री भगवानुवाच
काम एष क्रोध एष रजोगुणसमुद्भवः।
महाशनो महापाप्मा विद्ध्येनमिह वैरिणम्।।3.37।।

Shri Bhagvan said, ‘This kama and this krodha, born of the guna of rajas, is a great devourer, a great sinner. Know this to be the enemy here’.

Bhagvan seeks to present here the causal factor forced by which people commit sins despite being unwilling. Shri Shankaracharya starts the commentary of this verse by explaining the meaning of the word Bhagvan and why Vasudeva is called Bhagvan. Acharya quotes Vishnu Puran 6.5.47 – ‘complete Aishwarya (=majesty), virya (=power), yash (=renown), glory, vairagya and moksha, these six feature are denoted by bhaga’. He further quotes Vishnu Puran 6.5.78 – ‘origin, dissolution, appearance and disappearance of bhootas, vidya and avidya – one who knows these is called Bhagvan’. Now since the six features of bhaga are eternally there completely without obstruction in that Vasudeva who has the vijnana (=realisation) of the subjects of origin etc, he is called Bhagvan. Continue reading “Shankar Bhashya on Gita- One shloka a day- 3.37”

Shrimad Bhagvad Gita

Shankar Bhashya on Gita- One shloka a day- 3.36

Gita 3.36

अर्जुन उवाच
अथ केन प्रयुक्तोऽयं पापं चरति पूरुषः।
अनिच्छन्नपि वार्ष्णेय बलादिव नियोजितः।।3.36।।

Arjuna said, now, o scion of the Vrsni dynasty (Krsna), impelled by what does this man commit sin even against his wish, as if driven to it by force?

This verse is initiated in order to know the root of all anartha in a concise and definite manner like ‘this is thus for sure’ with an idea to make effort for its eradication after knowing it.

Arjuna asks that now o Krishna, the scion of Vrishni dynasty, by which causal factor does this person commit sins against his wish, as if compelled by force like the analogy of a servant by king.

Bhagvan answers to listen to that enemy, the cause of all anartha about which you have asked (in next shloka):-